With my work, I want to talk about the language of materials and contribute to the understanding that each material has its own unseen potential. My metal patinatination process is the fruit of perpetual research, and the result of a slow and meticulous artisanal method, striving to achieve something that is both a wearable object and an artwork. Experimentation is one of the most challenging parts, for it can lead to something great, or nowhere. My work highlights the poetic force of the accident in which the creative process is irregular and unpredictable. This is how all of my designs were invented, born out of error, now inscribed in my identity.


With the aim to preserve the technological secrets, I keep the prosessing of the materials undisclosed.


Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear. Tantalum, niobium and hafnium all belong to this group. They all share some properties, including an extraordinary melting point above 2200 °C, high hardness and  a relatively high density. They are chemically inert, like precious metals such as platinum and gold, which means they are perfectly compatable with human body and does not cause staining, like silver or brass. Because of their high melting point, refractory metal components are never fabricated by casting.




Niobium is light grey, lustrous, paramagnetic metal. Its’ melting point is 2468 °C. In nature, niobium occurs in combination with other elements in minerals. The largest deposits of niobium mineral concentrates were found in 1950s in Brazil and Canada. Niobium has a hardness similar to that of pure titanium and it has similar ductility to iron. It oxidises in the earths atmosphere very slowly, hence its application in jewellery as a hypoallergenic alternative.


Niobium is considered a technology-critical element. It is used in various superconducting materials, nuclear industries, electronics and optics. It becomes a superconductor at cryogenic temperatures and has the highest critical temperature of the elemental superconductors at atmospheric pressure. Niobium has the greatest magnetic penetration depth of any element. In addition, it is one of the three elemental Type II superconductors. Niobium is an effective micro-alloying element for steel to increase the toughness, strength, formability, and weldability. Niobium is added to glass to obtain a higher refractive index, making possible thinner and lighter corrective glasses.




Tantalum is mined from various regions around the world, with most tantalum coming from South America or Australia. In its natural state, tantalum is dark grey with a bluish tint and a very high melting point at 3017 °C. As natural sources of tantalum are quickly depleting, experts believe that only about half a century worth of tantalum resources remain. Tantalum is an inert metal, which means that it does not react to most chemicals and does not dissolve in acid. Tantalum is shatterproof and extremely malleable which sets it apart from other contemporary metals. Because of its’ hardness, tantalum jewellery does not scratch or loose shape over time.


Being one of the most durable and rare metals known to man it is used in nuclear reactors, jet engines, rocket nozzles, surgical implants and production of refractive glass. Due to its biocompatibility, it is hypoallergenic like platinum and does not cause allergic reactions or exacerbate skin conditions. Also, it does not conduct heat and is comfortable and safe to wear.




Only known since 1923, hafnium is the last stable element to be discovered on the Earth. Hafnium is a shiny, silvery, ductile metal that is corrosion-resistant and chemically similar to zirconium. Its’ melting point is 2233 °C. A major source of this metal located particularly in Brazil and Malawi. It does not exist as a free element on Earth, but is found combined in solid solution with zirconium. Hafnium reserves have been infamously estimated to last under 10 years by one source if the world population increases and demand grows.


Hafnium is mostly used in control rods for nuclear reactors, also, electrodes and filaments. Hafnium is used in alloys with iron, titanium, niobium, tantalum, and other metals, which, for example could be used in alloys for liquid rocket thruster nozzles. It improves thereby the corrosion resistance especially under cyclic temperature conditions.




Gold is a soft, dense, yellow metal and it belongs to the precious metal group. It is very ductile and has a high lustre. The most gold is mined in South African gold mines. Often, gold is found as a native metal. This means it is not part of an ore, and does not need smelting. It may be in large, pure nuggets but more often must be separated from other minerals and soil. Most of the gold on Earth is deep inside the Earth’s core because it is dense. Nearly all discovered gold was deposited on the surface by meteorites.


When used in jewellery, gold is most of the time alloyed. The alloy determines it’s colour, density, value and physical properties such as hardness, ductility, etc.




Platinum is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious metal. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals and has remarkable resistance to corrosion. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth’s crust. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa. Because of its scarcity and given its important uses, it is highly valuable. It occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers and was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.


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